Ovulation and ovulation-inducing fertility medication for treating infertility in women
Infertility is defined as not being able to become pregnant after having regular intercourse (sex) without birth control after one year (or after six months if a woman is 35 years or older ). (HSS.gov 2019)
Infertility is common, according to the Centers for disease control and prevention about 10 in 100 ( 6.1million ) women in the United states ages 15-44 have difficulty becoming pregnant or staying pregnant.
Primary infertility is infertility in a woman who has never had a pregnancy Healthforbes Media reporting.
Secondary infertility is infertility in a woman who has one or more pregnancies, but cannot become pregnant again.
Clomiphene was discovered by Frank Palopoli in 1956 while he worked for Merrell company. It first successfully induced ovulation in women in 1961 and was approved by the food and drug administration ( FDA) in 1967.
Clomiphene Citrate more commonly known by its brand names Clomid and Serophene is medication prescribed to women who do not ovulate or ovulate irregularly. ( Tian zhu 2009)
Mechanism of Clomiphene
Clomiphene triggers the brain’s pituitary gland to secrete an increased amount of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). This action stimulates the growth of the ovarian follicle and this initiates ovulation during a normal menstrual cycle only one egg is ovulated.
Clomiphene is synthetic chemical, taken orally, that binds to estrogen receptors in the brain and causes pituitary FSH levels to rise.
HOW TO USE CLOMIPHENE CITRATE
It is better to start Clomiphene on day three of the menstrual period. Starting early in the cycle helps with the recruitment of more than one mature egg ( supperovulation ). However, 2 tablets Clomiphene Citrate of 50mg each are taken orally for five days, from cycle day three to cycle day seven.
Tablet of 50mg
WARNING AND CONTRAINDICATION
-Contraindicated with Ospemifene and a close monitoring with Benazepril
-use in pregnant women is contraindicated
-ovarian cysts not due to pcos
POSSIBLE SIDE EFFECTS
Ovulation pain and increased sensitivity (mittelschmerz)
Blurry vision, double vision or traces
Ovarian enlargement (14%)
Vasomotor flushing (10%)
Abdominal discomfort (6%)
Blurred vision (1.5%)
Breast discomfort (2%)
Nausea and vomiting (2%)
Readily absorbed from gastrointestinal tract
Faces 35-50% little amount in urine.
There are other Alternatives fertility treatment for those who do not become pregnant with Clomiphene therapy.
For further information and before commencement of therapy always consult your physician or pharmacist.
By Pharmacist Lawal Taiwo Joseph